Breeding from your cat. A female cat (queen) is capable of producing several litters of kittens every year throughout her life. Neutering is advised unless you want to take on the responsibility of finding good homes for the kittens or you are going to keep your cat permanently indoors. Keeping an un-neutered queen indoors is not a good answer to the problem. A calling queen will keep you and your neighbours awake and will do her best to escape at every opportunity. There is also a risk of infection developing in your cats uterus (pyometra) if she is neither neutered or bred from. If you do decide to breed from your cat there are various things to consider to make sure that both mother and kittens are strong and healthy.
How do I go about choosing a mate? Any un-neutered female cat that is allowed out of doors will find her own mate but you may wish to have some say in this choice, particularly if your cat is a pedigree! Certain breeds such as Siamese and Persians are more likely to have problems in giving birth, so get advice from an experienced breeder. It is also a good idea to join the relevant cat club for your breed. A breeder should be able to suggest a stud cat that is known to produce healthy offspring. Before being allowed to mate, your queen should be treated for worms, have received her routine vaccinations.Ask the owner of the stud cat for proof that it is also up to date with its vaccinations.
When is the right time to breed from my cat? If you let your cat out she will probably be mated before you know she is calling, but it is better not to allow your cat to have kittens until she is fully grown. Some cats are sexually mature at an early age and can, if held back for too long, lose condition. If your cat calls persistently when you do not think she is big enough to mate, consult your veterinary surgeon for advice. Your cat can have a hormone injection or tablets to prevent pregnancy before she is fully grown, but this may affect her future fertility and is not recommended by vets except in exceptional circumstances.
How often will my cat come into season? Most queens will have regular seasons throughout the year, apart from the winter months (November to February) - the process is controlled by day length and the cat's general physical condition. Some breeds, especially Siamese and Burmese, will come into season at any time of the year. Most queens will be in season (cycle) for between three and ten days and if they do not become pregnant will return to season about four weeks later. This varies between individuals and the oriental breeds, in particular, may cycle more frequent. A queen in season will become more noisy and affectionate than usual. She will roll around on the floor and raise her hind quarters in the air, in a very provocative way, when her back is stroked. Sometimes the noise and unusual behaviour is mistakenly thought to be due to pain.
When is the best time to mate my cat? Queens are usually taken to the stud cat to be mated around the second day of their week long season. At other times she will probably be unreceptive and could fight with the stud cat. The female is usually taken to the stud's home and they should be introduced with caution. Mating is short and surprisingly violent - the tomcat grips the queen by the scruff of the neck as she lies on the floor with her rear raised and after mating she will hiss, roll around the floor and attack the stud unless he leaps out of the way. The release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation) occurs only after mating so several matings over three or four day period may be required. On returning home the cat may still be sexually receptive. As the queen is capable of having a mixed litter of kittens sired by several tomcats she should be kept indoors for a few days.
How long does the pregnancy last? Most pregnancies last between 63 and 68 days but it can be between 60 and 70. Your vet will be able to confirm pregnancy about three weeks after mating. During pregnancy and especially when feeding the kittens, the mother will need more food than normal.
How do I prepare for the birth? During pregnancy the behaviour of some cats will change, either demanding more attention or becoming more independent. When her time is near the mother cat will be looking for a suitable place to give birth. Line a cardboard box with newspaper or old towels and put it somewhere warm and quiet.
Is kittening likely to be dangerous for my cat? Problems in giving birth are much less common in cats than in women and queens usually do not need human assistance. However, occasionally there may be problems due to such things as the mother's birth canal being too narrow, exhaustion after a long labour or the muscles of the womb being unprepared to eject the kittens. Sometimes a kitten is abnormally large, has some other defect or it is badly positioned in the womb. These cases may require urgent veterinary attention to save both mother and kittens, so a queen should be watched during her kittening.
When should I call my vet? You should telephone your vet if there is no sign of a kitten after about 20 minutes of vigorous straining, or if a kitten is visible but has still not been born within about 10 minutes. There may also be problems if the mother seems feverish, lethargic or if there are substantial amounts of fresh blood coming out of her vagina. If in doubt phone your vet who will be happy to give you advice.
What if the mother is exhausted? During a normal birth there is no need to get involved unless the litter is large and the mother is clearly tired. If the mother does not move when a kitten appears some basic midwifery may help. Pull the birth membranes away from the kitten's nose and tear (do not cut) the umbilical cord about an inch from the body. Tearing the cord leaves a ragged edge which helps to prevent excessive loss of blood. If the kitten has not started breathing it may have fluid in its lungs. Hold the kitten in the palm of your hand with its head toward your fingers, hold your arm straight infront of you and bring your arm down to a vertical position in a firm but gentle swinging motion to expel the fluid from the kitten. Gently rubbing the kitten's face and belly with a dry towel will help stimulate it to breathe. Once it is breathing it should be returned to its mother as body contact is important in keeping it warm.
Is there a risk of problems after the kittens are born? There are a number of rare complications that can affect a mother cat in the days immediately following the birth. Contact your vet if your cat appears unusually restless, in pain, or shows signs of poor coordination and muscular spasms. Other indications of possible problems, include a hot and swollen lump on her breast, a dark coloured discharge from her vagina or any unusual swellings in the vaginal area. (from CD-Felis)