Önnur dýr


Um skirðdýr

Skriðdýr eru með misheitt blóð, anda með lungum og hafa þurra, hreisturkennda húð og verpa eggjum eða ala unga á landi. Í flokki núlifandi skriðdýra eru slöngur, eðlur, skjaldbökur og krókódílar. Skriðdýr eru ekki háð vatni á sama hátt og froskdýrin þar sem þeim er ekki nauðsynlegt að dvelja hluta af æviskeiði sínu í vatni. Húð skriðdýra er auk þess vatnsþétt og skriðdýr eru því ekki bundin við rakt umhverfi. Egg skriðdýra eru með leðurkenndri skurn sem kemur í veg fyrir að þau þorni um of þótt þeim sé verpt á þurru. Karldýrin frjóvga eggin í líkama kvendýranna áður en skurnin myndast um eggin. (Valdimar Helgason hryggdýr)

Fleiri upplýsingar um Iguana eðlur

Skriðdýr fóðrun

In feeding green iguanas, it is important to understand how these reptiles feed in the wild. The green iguana is a reptile native to Central and South America and Mexico. Studies in Panama found that the iguana eats mainly vegetable matter, including the fruit, leaves, and flowers of certain bushes, trees, and vines, with feeding occurring in frequent, small meals. Thus, iguanas are mainly herbivorous, although they may eat insects in small amounts.

Their diet mainly consists of fiber and plant protein, and contains very little fat. The iguana’s hindgut is highly specialized to allow fiber digestion, similar to the stomach compartments of cattle. Currently, two schools of thought exist about the proper feeding regimen of iguanas. Some doctors and herpetologists recommend a diet consisting of 100% plant-based matter. Others recommend a diet consisting of 80-90% plant-based matter with 10-20% animal-based protein, such as crickets, worms, and moths (if the iguana will eat these insects).

For juvenile iguanas (younger than 2 years of age), 80% of their diet should be plant-based protein material and 20% animal-based protein material. For adult iguanas, 90% of the diet should be plant-based and 10% animal-based. This decrease in animal protein will help prevent gout and renal failure. Of the plant matter, most (80%) should be vegetable- or flower-based, and only 20% fruit-based. Even though iguanas enjoy the sweetness of fruit, it is mineral-deficient compared with vegetables.

Fruit should mainly be considered a treat. Plant-based matter acceptable for iguanas includes the following items. As a rule, anything green and leafy should make up a large part of the diet. Yellow and orange vegetables should also be included. Fiber-rich, vitamin- and mineral-deficient vegetables such as lettuce and celery should be avoided (small amounts of romaine lettuce can be offered as part of the vegetable „salad“).

Acceptable vegetables include collard/mustard/turnip greens, alfalfa chow or hay, bok choy, kale, parsley, spinach (less than 10% of the vegetable matter, as spinach contains oxalates that bind calcium), bell pepper, green beans, green peas. corn, okra, cactus, yellow squash / zucchini / acorn squash, sweet potatoes, cabbage, broccoli, and flowers such as carnations, hibiscus, and roses (azaleas are toxic and should be avoided).Flowers, their stems, and leaves can be offered to the iguana.Vegetables can be offered either cooked or raw.

The owner should experiment with the iguana to see if it prefers raw or cooked food. Flowers can be home-grown or purchased from floral shops. Floral shops often throw out older, wilting flowers that may be unacceptable for sale to the public, but which reptile owners can sometimes obtain for free.It is prudent to ensure that no chemicals have been recently applied to the flowers or their water containers, however.

Flowers, vegetables, and fruits should be thoroughly washed prior to feeding. Fruit can include apples, pears, bananas, grapes, peaches, kiwi, and melons. Especially good are figs (which contain more calcium than other fruits), papayas, raspberries, and strawberries. Appropriate animal-based protein sources include crickets, sardines (drained), tofu, hard-boiled eggs, earthworms, and meal-worms. Dog food and cat food contain too much vitamin D and fat, and should never he fed to iguanas.

Reptile pellets, bird pellets, trout chow, and other fish chows are an excellent animal-based protein source; providing these substances precludes the need for live prey (although you can feed live prey, such as crickets, as the iguana may enjoy the psychological stimulation of catching the live prey). Live prey, such as crickets and worms, should be either raised by the owner or purchased from a pet store or reptile breeder. Never feed an iguana insects taken from the family garden. If owners get their insects from a local pet store, it is a good idea to „nutrient load“ them prior to feeding the insects to the iguana.

Keep these insects in a container and feed them finely ground rodent or fish chow or fish flakes blended with calcium carbonate powder (if using fish flakes, add high-protein baby cereal flakes). A slice of orange (for crickets) or sweet potato (mealworms) can serve as a water source for the insects. Insects should be fed for at least a few days prior to offering them to the iguana. Before feeding the iguana, the owner should lightly sprinkle the insects with a good multivitamin powder. One ground multivitamin tablet lightly sprinkled on the food each day is also acceptable. To ensure the proper amounts of vitamins and minerals in the diet, the owner should lightly sprinkle all food offered to the iguana with a calcium powder (such as ground calcium gluconate, lactate, or carbonate tablets). Weekly, a light sprinkling of a good reptile vitamin on the food is also recommended.

A light dusting means just that, over supplementation can cause problems. Hypervitarninosis D is a common occurrence in pets oversupplemented with vitamins. It can be avoided by holding back on the supplementation. Remember that supplementation is truly necessary only if the animal is not eating a well-balanced diet. Well-balanced diets probably do not require supplementation. Because most owners do not feed well balanced diets, light supplementation may be a necessity. Owners should think of a light sprinkling the same way they would lightly salt food for themselves.

Juvenile iguanas should be fed daily, while adult iguanas can be fed every other day. These recommendations are just guidelines, however, and many adult iguanas will eat daily. Fresh water, offered in a crock that won’t easily tip over, should be available at all times. Iguanas not only will drink from the water bowl but will often bathe in it as well (although it is perfectly acceptble to mist the iguana a few times a week). Owners must make sure the water stays clean (many reptiles love to eliminate in their water dish). In summary, iguanas eat mainly plant-based food. Variety is the key.

Owners should not let their iguanas get „hooked“ on just one or two favorite items; they should feed many items in small portions. The food pieces should be cut into the proper size for the pet: smaller iguanas need their food finely chopped. As with all pets, fresh vegetables are preferred, frozen is second best, and canned is least desirable. Owners can make up about a week’s worth of the diet and refrigerate or freeze the rest for convenience.

(Reptile diseases by Shawn P. Messonnier)


Eðlur aðbúnaður

Small reptiles often do well in 10- to 20-gallon aquariums, whereas larger animals must be moved to more comfortable enclosures. These cages can often be purchased or built by the pet owner. At a minimum, the pet should be able to turn around in the cage; snakes should be able to stretch to at least one-quarter to one-half of the body length. Substrate should be easy to clean and non-toxic to reptiles. Newspaper, butcher’s paper, cloth towels, paper towels, or astroturf is recommended. Astroturf is preferred by many reptile owners. The owner should acquire two pieces and cut them to fit the bottom of the cage. One piece is placed in the cage, while the other piece is kept outside and thus is always clean.

When the turf inside the cage becomes soiled, the owner will then have a clean, dry piece to replace it. The soiled turf can be cleaned with ordinary soap and water (dilute bleach or dilute chiorhexidine solution can be used as long as the cage and turf are properly rinsed), thoroughly rinsed, and hung to dry before the next cage cleaning. Alfalfa pellets can also be used as bedding for iguanas or turtles; these pellets are often eaten by the pet without problems. Owners should avoid sand, gravel, wood shavings, corn cob material, walnut shells, mud, moss, and cat litter, as these substances are harder to clean and can cause impactions if eaten on purpose or accidentally if the food becomes covered by these substrates. In particular, cedar wood shavings are reportedly toxic to reptiles.

Natural branches are enjoyed by both snakes and iguanas. Owners must ensure that they are secure and won’t fall onto the pet and cause an injury. Ideally, the branch should slope from the bottom of the enclosure to the top, ending near a heat source so that the pet can bask. Large rocks in the cage also allow for basking.

A hiding place is appreciated by all reptiles; reptiles without hiding boxes often become stressed and ill. Artificial plants can be arranged to provide hiding spaces, as can clay pots, cardboard boxes, and other containers that provide a secure area. In general, reptiles should receive 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness each day.

A heat source is necessary for all reptiles, as reptiles are ectothermic and need a variety of temperatures to regulate their internal temper ature. Ideally, the cage should be set up so that a heat gradient is established, with one area of the tank being warmer than the other end. In this way, the pet can move around its environment and warm or cool itself as needed. To establish and maintain the proper temperature gradient, owners should purchase two thermometers and place one at the cooler end and one at the warmer end. The cooler end of the cage should be approximately 20°C, while the warmer end should be 30-35°C for most reptiles . Temperaures may vary for exotic species, and a reference book should he consulted for information.

A convenient, inexpensive, and safe way to supply heat is with a focal heat source. A 100W incandescent bulb with a reflector hood works well. This heat source should be placed outside and above one end of the cage, which should be covered by a screen top to prevent iguanas and snakes from escaping or burning themselves on the bulb. At night, additional heat usually isn’t necessary as long as the temperature remains 18-20°C. If additional heat is needed, room space heaters, heating pads placed under an elevated cage (elevated about I in. off the surface), or infrared bulbs can he used. in place of or in addition to 100W light bulbs.

A good way to allow the reptile to bask is to place the bulb and hood at one end of the cage and arrange a branch or perching (basking) area near the light. This set-up allows the animal psychological stimulation (provided by the climbing) as well as a safe heat source. A popular form of offering heat for reptiles is the infamous „Hot Rock“ or „Sizzle Rock.“ These devices are dangerous and should be avoided! Why an animal would not remove itself from a dangerously hot object is unknown, but it is not uncommon for reptiles to sustain severe, even fatal, burns from a Hot Rock.

Therefore, these external sources of heat are not recommended. As mentioned earlier, heating pads can be used underneath the cage, at one end of the enclosure. Owners should be advised to make sure that the pad adequately warms that part of the cage and to ensure that it doesn’t overheat the cage, creating a „greenhouse effect.“ Many experts recommend elevating the cage about 2-3 cm off the ground with blocks and then sliding the heating pad underneath the cage. If heating pads are used, the top of the cage must not be open or too much heat will be lost.

A few small holes can be cut at the top and along the lower part of the cage for ventilation and some thermoregulation. Heating tape or coils of the variety used to warm the soil for plant protection present another possibility. Such heat sources need to be buried in soil (soil usually isn’t recommended as a cage substrate) and can cause harm if exposed. Finally, space room heaters can be used if the room cools down too much at night. They probably shouldn’t be the only heat source, as they don’t allow for a cooler area of the cage.

Eðlur sjúkdómar

Metabolic bone disease also called nutritional osteodystrophy, nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, or rubber jaw is probably the most common disease of iguanas. The condition typically results from a lack of calcium and/or vitamin D3 in the diet.

Increased dietary phosphorus, primary renal or hepatic disease, or thyroid or parathyroid disease can also cause metabolic bone disease. Even though the blood calcium level usually remains normal, the animal can show signs of illness. Early signs include swelling of the mandibles, later swelling of the limbs, usually the rear legs, is seen. Many owners often mistake this swelling for increased muscularity, despite the fact that the iguana may be losing weight and actually appears thin. Later in the course of the disease, weakness, lethargy, and anorexia become evident. Pathologic fractures can occur due to cortical bone thinning, and paralysis may result if the spine is fractured and the spinal cord is severed.

Hypocalcemic tetany may be manifested by muscle twitching. A plantigrade or palmigrade stance (walking on the hocks or wrist) may also appear as a sign of weakness. With metabolic bone disease, any combination of these symptoms is possible.If the iguana is still eating and active, the prognosis for recovery is good to excellent. The first step in treatment is a complete physical examination. Often, sick animals also have infectious stornatitis, septicemia, and infection with internal parasites. A good examination can provide a wealth of prognostic information.

Obstructions of the gastrointestinal tract can occur in iguanas. Obstructions can be caused by heavy parasite burdens (typically pinworms), foreign bodies (usually in young iguanas), cage bedding (especially if sand, shells, or corncob is used), or neoplasia. Symptoms are nonspecific but may include abdominal distention with tympany.

Gout. In reptiles, uric acid is the end-product of protein metabolism and is excreted by the renal tubules.Uricemia occurs when the kidneys are unable to filter uric acid from the blood; as a result, urates deposit in various body sites. Hyperuricemia can develop secondary to dehydration, high-protein diets, renal failure, and antibiotic usage. In one study in snakes, post-prandial uric acid levels peak by the fourth day after feeding; levels returned to normal within 2 weeks after feeding.

The same phenomenon may occur in other reptiles; uric acid levels should be evaluated in light of diet and time of recent feeding. Visceral and articular gout may he seen in iguanas. Signs of this condition depend upon the site affected. Appendicular gout, which causes lameness and swelling, is less common than visceral gout (to which the liver, kidney, spleen, and pericardium are predisposed). Subcutaneous and sublingual uric acid deposits may also be seen in gout; obstipation can be seen if the intestines are involved.

Burns are commonly seen as a result of the popular „Hot Rocks“ and „Sizzle Stones.“ Most owners are surprised to learn that a reptile seeking warmth will lie on a hot surface and burn itself. Burns can also occur if the reptile is not protected from direct contact with a heat source such as a light bulb. Treatment of burns is supportive and may include topical medication, parenteral antibiotics, and surgical debridement. Thermal burns tend to generate a large amount of scar tissue; healed skin may be depigmented (vitiligo).

Infectious stomatitis is more commonly known as „mouth rot.“ The disease is almost always caused by bacteria. Certainly a filthy environment contributes to this problem, internal parasites, poor diet, improper environment and improper environmental temperature (low body temperature in any animal decreases the ability of the body’s immune system to fight off infection; for the ectothermic reptiles, proper environmental temperature is critical to survival), shipping (e.g., when a pet is brought into an owner’s home after purchase), too little or too much handling, a too humid or too dry cage, and almost any other stress. Early symptoms that often go unnoticed by owners are petechial hemorrhages inside the oral cavity. These signs are often observed during a routine physical examination of an asymptomatic iguana.

Respiratory diseases may occur secondary to other conditions, such as improper diet, environment, or infectious stomatitis. Respiratory disease can be as mild as rhinitis or as severe as pneumonia; caustive organisms include bacteria (most commonly), fungi, viruses, and parasites. Lack of a diaphragm prevents active coughing from the air-sac-like lungs of reptiles, and the mainstem bronchi and trachea enter the lungs more cranially than in mammals. These factors favor the retention of respiratory secretions in the lower airways; simple respiratory infections are more prone to developing into pneumonia than in mammals.

Many „simple“ respiratory infections in reptiles are actually signs of serious lower respiratory disease and may require aggressive treatment. While the prognosis for such infections is always guarded, many reptiles will survive if appropriate aggressive treatment is instituted. To be safe, any reptile that is anorectic and lethargic and has respiratory symptoms (e.g., sneezing, wheezing, mucopurulent nasal discharge, dyspnea, open-mouth breathing) should be taken to a veterinarian. . Many of these pets are gravely ill and hospitalization is essential.

Anorexia/constipation/regurgitation syndrome is an ill-defined condition that is usually seen in iguanas that fail to adapt to captivity. Often the iguana has had a recent change in owner, diet or environent. Pets with this condition are often chronically, seriously debilitated, and many have concurrent disorders (e.g., parasites, infectious stomatitis). These animals are critically ill and require immediate and intensive hospitalization and treatment. The prognosis is guarded, as many of these pets have not eaten for several weeks.

Fractures. Most fractures of the extremities, especially those caused by metabolic bone disease, are stable and heal rapidly as the disease resolves through treatment and improved diet (especially in the smaller iguanas. Fractures of the vertebrae may or may not heal; often neurological impairment is permanent, hut euthanasia should always be considered only as a last resort. Unstable limb fractures, as well as vertebral and mandibular fractures, can be immobilized.

Hypervitaminosis D. There exists some controversy on whether or not true hypervitaminosis D“ actually occurs in iguanas. Some research seems to indicate that reptiles are unable to absorb vitamin D from the intestinal tract. If this is true, then it is unlikely that iguanas would develop hypervitaminosis D from excess dietary vitamin D.

Nevertheless, most current literature still discusses „hypervitaminosis D“ when referring to the syndrome of severe hypercalcemia that seems to be related to an incorrect diet containing excess vitamin D. While hypovitaminosis D3 often contributes to metabolic bone disease, hypervitaminosis D is also harmful.

This condition usually occurs when owners oversupplement with vitamins (only a light sprinkling is needed a few times a week) or give dog or cat food to their pets (both contain excessive amounts of vitamin D, as well as excess fat and protein). Periovulatory females can show marked hypercalcemia that has no significance. Clinical signs arc nonspecific and resemble many diseases; often, only anorexia and lethargy are seen. Treatment includes slowly correcting the diet, and hospitalization to correct the high calcium level. Treatment is often unsuccessful. Prevention is once again the best course.

Avascular Necrosis. Iguanas may be examined for avascular necrosis of the digits or tail. These necrotic areas appear darker than the surrounding tissue. Left untreated, the necrosis can spread cranially up the tail or digit. The exact cause isn’t always determined, but can include septicemia, mycotoxicosis, mycobacteriosis, a fungal infection, or retained skin after molting. Treatment is simple when the condition is caught at an early stage, and involves amputation of the affected area. The tail usually grows back if left unsutured.

Spurt og svarað

Ég á 3 skjaldbökur. Þær hafa verið í einhverju þunglyndi undanfarið og vilja hvorki skinku né rækjur. Er í lagi að gefa þeim ekkert að borða í einhvern tíma og athuga hvort þær vilja eitthvað seinna? Svo er það annað, okkur var sagt að það mætti setja þær í kalt vatn eða inn í ísskáp ef maður þyrfti að fara í ferðalag í nokkra daga.Er það satt? Svo á ég líka salamöndru sem er ein eftir að hin „strauk“. Gæti verið að henni leiddist? Hún var alltaf hress og synti um en núna liggur hún bara á botninum og hreifir sig ekki. Hún er líka komin með gráa slikju á sig en ekki svarta eins og hún á að vera. Við hugsum mjög vel um hreinlæti og erum dugleg að gefa henni að borða en ekkert gengur. Geturu leiðbeint mér?
Það er ekki ráðlegt að setja skjalbökur inn í ísskáp í nokkra daga. Á þessum tíma vilja skjalbökur fara í hýði ef hitastig lækkar. Til að þær fari í dvala þarf sérstaklega að gera ráð fyrir því. Þær hætta að borða og verða hæglátar.  Þú ættir kannski að láta líta á salamöndruna, gá hvort eitthvað sá að henni.